Head, Department of Electronics Engineering
Director, School of Radar Technology
Defence Institute of Advanced Technology
DIAT, DRDO, PUNE, INDIA
Sponsored Projects Executed as Chief-/Co-Investigator/ Main Designer
Total number of Projects successfully completed: 51
Projects executed as a Main Designer/co-investigator : 7
Projects executed as Chief Investigator/ Designer : 34
Core R&D projects : 7
Ongoing Projects : 7
A. Projects successfully executed as Main Designer/Co-Investigator:
1. Mesosphere Stratospheres Troposphere (MST) RADAR, NARL, ISRO
(Total Outlay:>Rs8.0Crores, Duration 1987-1992)
MST Radar was developed for atmospheric studies and was jointly funded by various Govt. of India Departments such as ISRO, MeitY, DRDO, IMD, DST, CSIR, etc. This Radar works at 53 MHz and was designed, developed and installed by SAMEER. This world’s second-largest MST RADAR was commissioned in 1993 and is efficiently working till date. Besides participating in system design, my main contributions towards this project were:
a. Design, development, testing and installation of 32 x 32 phased array antenna with 1024 number of 3 elements crossed Yagi-Uda antenna, including complete phase calibration, equalization and collimation.
b. Design, development, testing and installation of 32 numbers of Triode based multistage High-Power Amplifiers (HPA). Total peak power of the RADAR was 2.4MW with maximum modular power of 120 KW at 2.5% duty.
c. Design and developed blanking switch which was batch fabricated for 32 receiver channels.
2. Development of a RFID System, DOE/DeitY, MC&IT
(Outlay: Rs26.5Lakhs, Duration 1995-1998)
Indigenously designed and developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system at 915 MHz under sponsored project in mid 90s. The system was demonstrated for remote identification of the moving object. It was meant for Railway wagon identification and vehicle tracking.
3. Echo Boxes for Indian Air Force (IAF)
(Outlay: 28.5 Lakhs, 2006)
The Echo Box, to calibrate L-band Radars were developed and supplied to Indian Air Force. Units installed at Adampur and Sirsa base stations had developed problems, which were redesigned, repaired and installed.
4. RACON Antennas for DGLL (204-2006)
A pair of X and S band antennas for RACON were indigenously designed, developed and tested. These antennas are being used in the RACON for Light Houses.
5. High Power Phase Shift Circulator for Medical LINAC, Meity
(25.00 Lakhs, 2008-09)
High power circulator has been designed and developed indigenously. Two units were delivered to Medical Linear Accelerator project, which were integrated with systems and are operational. This has established the indigenous technology.
6. Dipole Array and Short Back Fire (SBF) Antenna, IMD (1989)
This antenna was a part of Radio Theodolite system project at 400 MHz, funded by IMD. Analysed the end fed dipole array and devised the mechanism to match it with other systems. Also, designed and developed a Short Back Fire (SBF) antenna array as an alternative antenna to the dipole array.
7. Receiving Antenna for Radiosonde, IMD, (2006)
Designed and developed planar triangular monopole antenna for transmitting antennas and an array of axial mode helical antenna for receiving for radiosonde. These antennas have been developed, tested and delivered.
B. Projects executed as Chief Investigator and Main Designer
8. Disinfection of Hospital Waste using Microwave Technology, Meity & DBT
(Outlay: Rs47.00 Lakhs, Duration 1998-1999)
This indigenous system was successfully designed, developed at 2.45 GHz for disinfecting hazardous hospital waste using microwave technology and its efficacy was tested in Haffkine Institute, Parel, Mumbai. These machines have been installed at various hospitals all over the country. International patent has been obtained for this innovation and three TOTs have been executed at SAMEER Mumbai.
**Indigenous Development of High Power CW VHF Transmitter Systems: Under the collaboration with VECC, DAE (Total Outlay: ~Rs6.00Crores, Duration 1999-2015)
When the concerned technology was denied because of embargo, an MOU was signed between SAMEER and VECC, DAE for indigenous development of CW high power transmitter system for RIB programme. Four projects have been successfully completed in different phases of this collaboration. A 30 kW CW VHF transmitter system along with its pre-driver SSA stage, control and interlock circuitries at 35 + 4 MHz was designed, developed and commissioned at VECC, Kolkata. Additionally, many systems such as 1 kW, 2 kW, 5 kW and 30 kW CW transmitters at 37.8 MHz and 5 kW at 75 MHz were developed and installed. Later, under the 4th phase of collaboration, a challenging new design and development work of 30 kW at higher frequency of 75 MHz pulsed/CW transmitter system has been completed. This collaboration will continue for various indigenous developments.
Following projects have been successfully completed under this MOU so far:
9. Design and development of tuneable 30 kW CW Transmitter, 100 W CW Pre-Buncher RF Source and RF Control Unit for Thomcast Amplifier at 35 MHz
(Outlay 160 Lakhs, 1999-2003)
10. Development of a 30 kW CW Transmitter, a 2 kW CW Buncher RF Source and a 5 kW CW Buncher RF Source at 37.8 MHz
(Outlay 120 Lakhs, 2004-2007)
11. Development of a tuneable 37.8 35 MHz, 30 kW CW Transmitter a 75 MHz, 5 kW CW Buncher RF Source
(Outlay 112 Lakhs, 2008-2010)
12. Design and development of a 75.4 MHz, 30 kW CW Transmitter System
(Outlay: 196.00 Lakhs, Duration 2011-2015)
13. Design and development of High Power Transmitting Antenna for Space Domain Interferometer (SDI), NMRF, ISRO
(Outlay: Rs 16.00 Lakhs, Duration 2003-2005)
A high power (120kW), broad beam width antenna consisting of crossed folded dipoles over wire ground plane fed by 3 dB hybrid coupler at 53 MHz was designed, developed and commissioned for Space Domain Interferometer (SDI) programme of NARL(then NMRF), DOS, Tirupati.
14. Design of Custom Built Microwave Oven for Radio Active Gel Processing, BRIT, DAE
(Outlay: Rs 5.00 Lakhs, Duration 2002-03)
A high power microwave system was required for processing of Isotopes for medical applications. The system design was completed. The documents have been handed over to BRIT, which will be fabricated and tested.
15. Industrial Microwave Heating TIFAC, DST/ Hitech Engineers Mumbai
(Outlay: Rs 10.00 Lakhs, Duration 2001-2003)
Successfully completed project on development of 1.5 kW system at 2.45 GHz for industrial microwave heating/processing. The unit is being used for grain drying.
16. 15 kW RF Dryer for Industrial Processing, CTE, SAMEER
(Outlay: Rs 35.00 Lakhs, Duration 1995-97)
Designed, developed and characterized a 15 KW conveyorized RF dryer at ISM frequency of 27.12 MHz. Technology developed has been transferred to CTE, SAMEER, which has already sold couple of machines to the industries.
17. A 20 kW Pulsed Transmitter for Wind Profiler System, DST/IMD
(Total Outlay: 30 Lakhs, 1997-2002)
Designed, developed and tested the 20 kW pulsed transmitter with all the safety control and interlock circuits for Wind Profiler System (WP) at 404.37 MHz. It has been integrated with other subsystems of the Radar, which was installed at Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), Pune and was operational since January, 2002.
18. Microwave-based processing System for IARI/ICAR, New Delhi
(Outlay: Rs 26 Lakhs, 2004-2012)
A microwave food processing unit with 3 kW output power has been successfully designed, developed and commissioned for IARI, Pusha Rad New Delhi. The unit was designed keeping in mind various experiments, which IARI had planned on agro/food products, including an application of converting fruit juice into fruit powder using microwave technology.
Again in 2013-14, two high power 3 kW and 5 kW systems with variable/settable power were designed, developed and handed over to Pusha Institute, New Delhi.
A 3 kW conveyorized system has been developed for Soy Bean processing to disable Trypsin Enzyme for CIAE, IARI, Bhopal.
19. Conveyorized Microwave system for CMERI, Durgapur through Hitech Engineers
(Outlay: Rs 8.00 Lakhs, 2002)
A microwave dryer with 1.5 kW power was developed and installed at Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI), Durgapur for industrial processing.
20. Development of High Power Microwave System for Tea Processing, DST
(Outlay: Rs52.90 Lakhs, Duration 2006-2009)
Conceptualized the design and development of a high power microwave (10 kW) system for tea drying with conveyorized belt applicator. The system was installed in tea garden Kumtai Tea Garden, Badlipar near Tejpur. The quality of the processed tea improves significantly. An industrial collaborator M/s T&I Ltd, Kolkata, with whom SAMEER has signed MOU, is also participated in this project.
21. Development of Airborne VUHF Antenna for LCA, ADA, DRDO Bangalore
(Outlay: Rs 23.50 Lakhs, Duration 2005-2009)
Designed and developed the V/UHF wide band (100-400MHz) airborne monopole antenna for Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) Bangalore, which passed all the QA/QT tests and obtained air worthiness. Six such units were developed for use in LCA.
22. National Fund Project on Electromagnetic Energies for Bio-stimulation and Post Harvest Conservation of Seeds and Agri-products, IARI/ICAR, New Delhi
(Outlay: Rs 15 Lakhs, Duration 2007-10)
Under this project, fundamental research to improve yield of the crop using RF/microwaves, was carried out by Pusha Institute, IARI, which was funded by ICAR. As an expert collaborator, I provided guidance in designing and developing high power RF/microwave system with suitable applicator to facilitate exposure of seeds to RF/Microwaves.
23. Development of High Power Microwave Source for Ceramic sintering, BHEL, Bangalore
(Outlay: Rs 7.8 Lakhs, Duration 2007-2008)
The high power microwave system was designed and developed for the application of drying large section thickness ceramic bodies to make a high voltage insulator and ceramic sintering for BHEL, Bangalore. Project was used extensively and an international patent was obtained.
24. Deployment of Microwave Disinfection Systems to treat Medical Waste in Government Hospitals of North Eastern States of Sikkim and Tripura, DeitY
(Outlay:Rs 86.70 Lakhs, Duration 2007-2009)
Under this project, 30 litres capacity microwave disinfection system were developed and installed in 3 Govt. hospitals in Sikkim and four in the state of Tripura. It largely solved the problem of handling the infectious wastes in these hospitals.
25. Design and Development of Antennas for Shared Aperture Applications for AMCA, ADA DRDO
(Outlay: Rs 47.00 Lakhs, Duration 2012-14)
For next upgradation of LCA, AMCA project, conceptualization of sharing all apertures (antennas) on an aircraft for CNI and EW applications was finalised. A scheme was evolved for shared aperture system configuration involving fibre optic converters, channelizers, analog-digital converters and digital receivers. The antenna placement is tentatively decided in consultation with ADA structural engineers. As a part of concept demonstration a Vivaldi Antenna: An element and linear array of Vivaldi antennas were designed and fabricated for the wide band of 2-6 GHz for frequency sharing of various functionalities.
26. National RFID Programme, MeitY new Delhi
(Outlay: Rs 62.00 Lakhs, Duration 2007-2010)
Successfully implemented a national RFID Programme with CDAC, Noida and IIT Kanpur and developed a system which was used to track speed post between cities. The technology was demonstrated at speed post centre at New Delhi and Mumbai airports.
27. Field Trials to generate data for the project entitled Development of High Power Microwave System for Tea Processing, DST
(Outlay: Rs 18.50 Lakhs, Duration 2010-2012)
This phase of the DST project of field trials of the 10 kW high power Microwave system was carried in tea gardens to quantify the advantages of microwave processing of tea leaves and to generate patentable data.
28. Indigenous Development of Fin-mounted Conformal V/UHF Antenna for ADA, DRDO
Outlay: Rs 40.00 Lakhs, Duration 2012-2014)
The fin mountable V/UHF antenna has been designed, developed and fully characterized. A provisional Airworthiness Certificate was obtained from CEMILAC, Bangalore for LCA platform. Five nos. of ESS qualified antennas were delivered to ADA alongwith all the documents.
29. Development of the Variable Power Microwave System for Denitration of Uranyl Nitrate Solution for BARC, DAE, Mumbai
(Outlay: Rs29.5 Lakhs, Duration 2012-15)
This strategically important high power microwave system with variable power of 6 kW at 2.45GHz with batch type applicator cavity, automatic power setting with high temperature handling has been developed and installed at BARC. It has been used of processing of sensitive materials at BARC.
30. Training Programme for North East Universities, DeitY/ Meity
Executed a project on training programme for North East Universities in the niche area of RF/Microwave Technology. Various training programmes were conducted at Gauhati University, Tejpur University, Assam University at Silchar, North East Hill University (NEHU), Shillong and Dibrugarh University. This programme was supported by NE programme of Meity.
31. Development of Microwave Energy based Unit for Processing Engineering Materials, IIT Roorkie
A variable 3kW Pulsed/CW power microwave system with batch type applicator, automated power and temperature controller and interlocks, has been developed for Mechanical Engineering Dept of IIT Roorkie. This system is being used for fundamental experiments on metal joining, drilling, etc using high power microwave technology.
32. Data-link Antennas for GHATAK, ADA Bangalore
(Outlay: Rs 40. Lakhs , Duration 2013-16)
This project involved feasibility study, design finalization, and testing of a prototype low RCS conformal antenna for Line-of-Sight (LOS) application for ADA, Bangalore.
33. Cassegrain Reflector Antenna for Cloud Radar, MOES
(75 Lakhs, 2012-16)
A reflector antenna at 35.6 GHz with gain of 54 dB, FSLL of 20 dB and very low cross polarization level has been designed, developed and integrated with the Cloud Radar at 36 GHzt, which is being developed for Ministry of Earth Sciences.
34. Microwave Technology based Tea processing system for NE States for Tejpur University, Meity
This variable power Microwave system was successfully designed developed for drying/processing tea leaves and spices. In collaboration with Tejpur University, the system has been installed and commissioned at Chandrabrabha Tea Factory, Golaghat, Assam.
35. Development of 10 kW microwave system for field trials in Tea gardens by Gauhati University, Meity
High power microwave systems at ISM band of 2.45 GHz have been developed for the integration with CTC machine for tea processing. It has been successfully installed and commissioned at Bhergaon Tea Estate, Bhergaon, Assam. Feed-back from university and tea gardens were taken into account for the development and installation of this unit. The system was under field trial.
36. Design, Development and Installation of Active Aperture ST Radar for North East Region, DeitY/MeitY
(Outlay: Rs22.42 Crores, Duration 2010-2019)
The state of the art active aperture monostatic Radar at 212 MHz having 576 radiating antennas elements; each of them is fed by individual TR module with peak power of 400W. Effective radiated power with all antenna elements radiating is 230kW. All the sub-systems of this radar have been successfully developed inhouse in SAMEER, Mumbai with state of the art digital receiver, signal and data processing units. The Radar system was fully installed in 2019 and is being used for Atmospheric Research.
C. Projects sponsored by Industries
37. Industrial Microwave Dryer M/s Hiteck Engineers, Mumbai
(Outlay: Rs 15 Lakhs, Duration 2002-5)
Designed, developed and tested 5 KW and 1.5 kW microwave dryers with batch, conveyor as well as fluidized belt applicator for various industrial applications with industry in sponsored by M/S Research Hiteck Engineers, Mumbai.
38. Meander line Applicator based Microwave System, M/s Johnson and Johnson, Mulund
(Outlay: Rs 5 Lakhs, 1993)
This system, with 2kW output power at 2.45 GHz with meander line applicator, was designed, developed and installed for M/s Johnson and Johnson, Mulund, Mumbai. It was used in experiment for processing band aid and medicated tapes.
39. Studies in Microwave Processing of Zinc Ore, M/s Sterlite (Hindustan Zinc), Udaipur
(Total Outlay: Rs45.00 Lakhs, Duration 2004-2005)
Under the MOU with Sterilite, a 1.5 kW microwave system with cylindrical applicator was designed, developed and commissioned in research centre of Sterlite (Hindustan Zinc Ltd), Udaipur.
Subsequently, a high power 15 kW CW microwave system with complete wave guide plumbing including horn antennas was developed and installed for experimentation/testing for processing of Zinc ore at Ramapura Agucha Zinc mines of Sterlite.
40. 5 kW Microwave System for Metal Welding, Hitech Engineers
(Outlay: Rs 12 Lakhs, 2005)
A variable power 1-5 kW system was designed, developed and delivered. This unit is unique in the sense that it is being tried for the first time to weld metal alloys in the presence of plasma using microwave power.
41. Development of Variable Power Microwave Source for processing of Nano Material, M/s Sayo Nano, Singapore
(Outlay: Rs 10.5 Lakhs, Duration 2007-08)
A variable power microwave system at ISM band of 2.45 GHz was developed for a Singapore company M/s Sayo-Nano. It is being used extensively for processing of liquid nano material in Singapore.
CORE R&D PROJECTS, which are monitored by Research and Advisory Committee (RAC) of SAMEER
42. Broadband and Dual/Multi-Frequency Microstrip Antennas (MSAs) SAMEER, Meity
(10 Laks, 2006-07)
Broadband and dual-frequency MSAs have been studied and analysed for GSM/PCN band application. Two original broadband and dual band MSA configurations were designed, fabricated and tested for proving the new concept, which were reported at international level.
43. Development of table-top Microwave Disinfection System with 10 litre Capacity SAMEER, Meity
(15 Laks, 2006)
A ruggedized automated batch type 1.5 kW microwave disinfection system with PLC based temperature control and water ejector system has been developed and tested to cater to the need of dispensaries, pathological laboratories and medical test laboratories.
44. Fractal Antennas, SAMEER, Meity
(10 Lakhs, 2010)
A project on conceptualization and development of fractal antennas for multiband/broadband response was executed. Three new configurations of fractal antennas have been developed, tested and published/referenced.
45. Indigenous development of Tunable Transmitter Systems in 400-450MHz Band SAMEER, Meity
A triode based high power pulsed system with variable power (5-15 kW) with driver amplifier, ALC, control/interlock circuits was indigenously developed and tested in UHF. Frequency tunability / settability was experimented keeping in mind requirements of IMD and Air Force.
46. UWB Planar Monopole Antennas SAMEER, Meity
(10 Lakhs, 2013)
In this ‘Blue Sky’ research it was aimed at conceiving new configurations of UWB printed antennas for various futuristic systems. Four novel configurations have been designed, developed and tested completing the mandate of the project. These configurations have been published in refereed international journals.
47. Implementation of a concept of an Active Aperture Wind Profiler SAMEER, Meity
(1.0 Crores, 2011-2014)
The concept of active aperture Radar, has been successfully implemented with an 4x4 square grid antenna array, wherein individual four elements Yagi-Uda Antenna elements are fed by indigenously developed 400W TR Module at 212 MHz. All other subsystems of the Radar such as Exciter, Radar Controller, Receiver, Signal and Data Processing system and CAN Controller have been integrated and tested. This technology is now being used in ST Radar project.
48. Solid State High Power Amplifiers SAMEER, Meity
(1.0 Crores, 2012-1016)
Various solid state CW/pulsed amplifiers with power levels ranging from 100 W-1 kW in VHF to L band range were developed and tested as a substitute for vacuum tubes.
D. Projects at DIAT, Pune
49. FMCW Radar at X-Band for low RCS measurement, DIAT/DRDO (2018-2021)
This project has been taken for the detection of Drones and low flying objects using FMCW technique. All the subsystems have been developed and integrated testing has been completed.
50. Development of HF Antenna for Over The Horizon (OTH) Radar, LRDE/DRDO (2018-2021)
Wideband antennas covering the frequency range from 3 to 10 MHz have been designed and tested for the Over the Horizon (OTH) Radar. This project is funded by LRDE, Bangalore.
51. Development of Microwave Sterilizer 'ATULYA' to neutralize COVID-19 DIAT/DRDO (2021)
A microwave sterilizer 'ATULYA' has been successfully designed, developed and tested to neutralize COVID-19 in any surface and aerosols. The main constituent of this unit is 800 W source with aperture matched radiators.
a. Total of 10 TOTs have been implemented and the unit it is being mass produced.
b. This product has been listed in GEM
c. A Trade mark of this product has been registered, TM Number is 4608887 for Word "Atulya".
d. CE marking also has been obtained for this unit.
52. Development of A Medium Range (5-10km) Secured Free Space Optical (FSO) Voice Simplex Communication System For The Mission Critical Wireless Optical Link (2020-2023) for NXXO (Strategic Organization).
53. Over the Horizon (OTH) Radar: Long term Training and Report generation for the Feasibility Study on Over The Horizon (OTH) Radar for NXXO (Strategic Organization).
54. Development of Compact Low Cost Microwave Disinfection System for M/s Forsta Meditech Pvt Ltd., Lucknow (2022)
An economical Microwave Disinfection System is being designed and developed for use by pathological labs, dispensaries and small sized hospitals. It is specifically developed for use in rural areas.
55. Performance Analysis of Microwave/RF Absorbers using Agricultural residues with and without addition of suitable Additives, DST (2020-2023)
Low cost RF/microwave absorbing materials, based on agricultural residues are being developed under this project. Through this mechanism agro-waste will be utilised effectively.
56. Consultancy project: Development of CW, FMCW, Pulsed Doppler Radars, M/s Akademika Pvt. Ltd, Pune (20021-22)
Know-how of various Radars will be developed and passed on to the industry to batch produce then for academic demonstrations.
57. Wearable/Body Worn Antennas for Medical and Defence Applications, DIAT, 2022-2023,
Technology will be developed for wearable electronics.
58. Design and Development of Reconfigurable FETs using 2D Materials for HF Applications, DIAT, 2022-24.